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Power Supplies A constant current source source can supply a fixed current to a load regardless of input voltage or load change. The LM is quite useful as a constant current source, works on a wide input voltage range, from 3V up to 40V. The circuit is rather simple, uses only one transistor and few passive components and performs well in terms of frequency stability, almost zero drifting after about 4 hours of continuous operation. With 12 volt DC it will deliver 1 watt RF power. The most important parts of the oscillator are the transistor Q1 and the tuned circuit, which comprises the inductor Ll and the variable capacitor CV1. When the battery is first connected, a brief surge of current flows from the collector to the emitter of Q1, causing an oscillating i. An oscillating voltage therefore appears at the junction of Ll and CV1.

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Magnetic compass[ edit ] Modern compasses usually use a magnetized needle or dial inside a capsule completely filled with a liquid lamp oil, mineral oil, white spirits, purified kerosene, or ethyl alcohol is common. Key points on the compass, including the north end of the needle are often marked with phosphorescent , photoluminescent , or self-luminous materials [15] to enable the compass to be read at night or in poor light. As the compass fill liquid is noncompressible under pressure, many ordinary liquid-filled compasses will operate accurately underwater to considerable depths.

Many modern compasses incorporate a baseplate and protractor tool, and are referred to variously as ” orienteering “, “baseplate”, “map compass” or “protractor” designs.

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Konfigurasi ini biasana dipakai pada air utility air bahasa Indonesia, bukan air yang berarti udara , misalnya untuk keperluan air yang demand-nya intermittent atau tidak konstan. Air masuk berasal dari sebuah pompa. Mengapa tidak langsung saja air dari pompa disalurkan ke utility? Hal ini disebabkan karenan pemakaian air yang tidak konstan, yang terkadang melebihi kapasitas delivery pompa. Mengapa tidak kapasitas pompanya saja yang diperbesar?

Semakin besar kapasitas pompa, semakin mahal biayanya. Pada posting kali ini tidak sedang membahas mengenai pompa dan air utility. Yang akan disoroti pada posting kali ini adalah pemasangan level transmitter untuk mengetahui ketinggian air di dalam tangki tersebut. LT Level Transmitter yang dipakai untuk mengukur ketinggian air di dalam tangki yang digunakan adalah DP transmitter.

Bagaimana DP bisa mengukur level, bisa dilihat di posting ini , atau di posting ini. Mengapa sisi low dari LT disambung ke tangki bagian atas? Hal ini karena untuk meng-equalize tekanan udara di sisi H dan L dari transmitter, sehingga yang terukur oleh LT adalah tekanan hidrostatik dari air yang berbanding lurus dengan ketinggian air di dalam tangki.

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How to Install Pressure Transmitters —Best Installation Practices Custom Search Installing a pressure transmitter or a differential pressure transmitter is suppose to be a simple process but can become a problem if certain best practices are not imbibed. One critical aspect of transmitter installation is the impulse piping between the process and the transmitter. The piping between the process and the transmitter must accurately transfer the pressure to obtain accurate process measurements otherwise measurement error will occur and compromise the process.

P Static Pressure Transmitter The P Static Pressure Transmitter is a low volume instrument which measures a particular differential pressure as referenced to atmosphere and converts the measurement into a proportional 3 to 15 PSIG (21 to Hook up a test divider circuit as shown in Fig. 4. 3. Turn the S selector.

Transducer outputs and their wiring configurations; Wiring one transducer to multiple readouts, recorders, computers, etc. Each of these problems, or questions are discussed in detail in the following article. It is important for the user to know which output suits his application to ensure proper selection of a transducer. The following will describe the advantages, disadvantages, and wiring for millivolt, volt and current output transducers.

Transducers with a millivolt output are generally used in laboratory applications. They are low cost, small in size, and require a regulated power supply. Remembering that the millivolt signal is very low level, it is limited to short distances up to feet is usually considered the limit and is very prone to stray electrical interference from other nearby electrical signals other instrumentation, high ac voltage lines, etc.

Typical wiring configurations are shown in Figure 1. Transducers with an amplified voltage output are generally used in a light industrial environment and computer interface systems, where a higher level dc signal is required. Due to the built-in signal conditioning, they are higher cost and larger in size than the millivolt output transducers. Amplified voltage signals can travel up to medium distances and are much better in their immunity to stray electrical interference than the millivolt signal.

Typical wiring configurations are shown in Figure 2.

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Diaphragm Seal without back-up flange Wafer type Diaphragm Seal Special attention shall be paid to diaphragm seals on low differential pressure and pressure applications. For low pressure measurement good practice is to increase the size of sensing element so that minor changes are captured. When a diaphragm seal is required, the largest practical diaphragm size and minimum capillary size should be applied.

Diaphragm seals shall be ordered as an integral part of the instrument. The length of the capillary tubing shall suit the application but shall be at least 1 meter.

Vaisala Differential Pressure Transmitter PDT is a high-performance When securing to EN rail first hook the top portion of the rear clip onto the top of the rail and push gently into place. To remove, simply place finger 36 VDC drawing less than 10 mA (24 VDC typical). Use of a shielded cable, with the shield grounded, is.

Supercardioid Shotgun A microphone’s directionality or polar pattern indicates how sensitive it is to sounds arriving at different angles about its central axis. The polar patterns illustrated above represent the locus of points that produce the same signal level output in the microphone if a given sound pressure level SPL is generated from that point. How the physical body of the microphone is oriented relative to the diagrams depends on the microphone design.

For large-membrane microphones such as in the Oktava pictured above , the upward direction in the polar diagram is usually perpendicular to the microphone body, commonly known as “side fire” or “side address”. Some microphone designs combine several principles in creating the desired polar pattern. Omnidirectional[ edit ] An omnidirectional or nondirectional microphone’s response is generally considered to be a perfect sphere in three dimensions. In the real world, this is not the case.

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Constant pressure plant, for example, jacketed pans, unit heaters, and steam-jacketed pipes. Good air venting is essential refer to Module A constant differential steam pressure is maintained in the system.

Preparation of data sheets of different type of field instruments like Pressure/ Differential pressure transmitter, Guided wave radar based level transmitter, Temperature transmitter, Float operated level switch, Flow Nozzle, Level indicator etc.

Differential pressure gage, range Air and non-combustible, compatible gases natural gas option available. May be used with hydrogen. Order a Buna-N diaphragm. Pressures must be less than 35 psi. Die cast aluminum case and bezel, with acrylic cover, Exterior finish is coated gray to withstand hour salt spray corrosion test. Relief plug opens at approximately 25 psig 1. See Overpressure Protection note on Catalog page. Diaphragm in vertical position. Consult factory for other position orientations.

For applications with high cycle rate within gage total pressure rating, next higher rating is recommended. Bezel provides flange for flush mounting in panel. Clear plastic face is highly resistant to breakage.

Dry Leg dan Wet Leg pada Level Transmitter

Jamshed pur Cont. Saudi Jharkhand India E-mail md. Specializing in the field of Trouble shooting, Running, Shutdown and Break down maintenances within a growth oriented firms. Instrument Maintenance Technician Company: Responsible for Running Maintenance Preventive and Corrective , Shutdown and Break down Maintenance, on line and off line Calibrations of field instruments such as control valves, Smart transmitters, Displacer type level transmitters, Gauges, Local indicators, Controllers and many others.

Assisted in Installation of Instrument as per related Drawings for Junction boxes, Process control instrument, Pressure Transmitter, temperature transmitter, differential pressure transmitter flow and level, Follow P&ID drawing etc.

Differential Pressure Flowmeters The calculation of fluid flow rate by reading the pressure loss across a pipe restriction is perhaps the most commonly used flow measurement technique in industrial applications Figure The pressure drops generated by a wide variety of geometrical restrictions have been well characterized over the years, and, as compared in Table 2, these primary or “head” flow elements come in a wide variety of configurations, each with specific application strengths and weaknesses.

Click on figure to enlarge. Primary Element Options In the 18th century, Bernoulli first established the relationship between static and kinetic energy in a flowing stream. As a fluid passes through a restriction, it accelerates, and the energy for this acceleration is obtained from the fluid’s static pressure. Consequently, the line pressure drops at the point of constriction Figure Part of the pressure drop is recovered as the flow returns to the unrestricted pipe.

The pressure differential h developed by the flow element is measured, and the velocity V , the volumetric flow Q and the mass flow W can all be calculated using the following generalized formulas: The discharge coefficient k is influenced by the Reynolds number see Figure and by the “beta ratio,” the ratio between the bore diameter of the flow restriction and the inside diameter of the pipe.

Additional parameters or correction factors can be used in the derivation of k, depending on the type of flow element used. The discharge coefficients of primary elements are determined by laboratory tests that reproduce the geometry of the installation.

How to calibrate(Calibration) Differential pressure transmitter using HART